Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs.
Khat was ranked 17th in dependence, 20th in physical harm, and 20th in social harm.
It is a controlled substance in some countries, such as Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States, while its production, sale, and consumption are legal in other nations, including Djibouti, Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, Somalia and Yemen.
Khat goes by various traditional names, such as kat, qat, qaad, ghat, chat, Abyssinian Tea, Somali Tea, Miraa, Arabian Tea, and Kafta in its endemic regions of the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.
The shrub is today scattered in the Kwa Zulu-Natal, Eastern Cape, Western Cape and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa, in addition to Swaziland and Mozambique.
Its fresh leaves and tops are chewed or, less frequently, dried and consumed as tea, to achieve a state of euphoria and stimulation; it also has anorectic (appetite-reducing) side effects.
The plant usually grows in arid environments, at a temperature range of 5–35 °C (41–95 °F).
In recent years, however, improved roads, off-road motor vehicles, and air transportation have increased the global distribution of this perishable commodity, and as a result, the plant has been reported in England, Wales, Rome, Amsterdam, Canada, Israel, Australia, New Zealand, Water consumption is so high, groundwater levels in the Sanaa basin are diminishing, so government officials have proposed relocating large portions of the population of Sana'a to the coast of the Red Sea.
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Long-term use can precipitate permanent tooth darkening (of a greenish tinge), susceptibility to ulcers, and diminished sex drive.
It is unclear if the consumption of khat directly affects the mental health of the user or not.